Evaluation of removal efficiency of capping materials used in pulp revascularization in vitro

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Cebeci G. Y., Almaz M. E., ORHAN E. O., BEKLEN A.

BMC Oral Health, vol.23, no.1, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 23 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1186/s12903-023-03313-3
  • Journal Name: BMC Oral Health
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Directory of Open Access Journals
  • Keywords: BioDentine, Failure, Micro-CT analysis, ProRootMTA, Pulp revascularization, RetroMTA
  • Eskisehir Osmangazi University Affiliated: Yes


Background: This study aimed to evaluate the removal efficiency of different capping materials used in pulp revascularization (PR) in a failure scenario. Methods: The apices of freshly extracted 30 maxillary incisors were cut to mimic the immature teeth; then, root canals were shaped up to #6 Peeso reamers. The regeneration steps of the American Association of Endodontists (AAE) were followed to simulate PR treatment in vitro. The canals were dressed with the Ciprofloxacin and Metronidazole medicament mixture for 2 weeks. Then capping material groups were created: BioDentine (BD), ProRootMTA (PMTA), and RetroMTA (RMTA) (n = 10). The sealed specimens were stored for 2 weeks at 37 ºC in phosphate-buffered saline then the samples were examined by micro-computed tomography (µ-CT) analysis. Set capping materials were retrieved using a specific cement removal kit by a single blind operator. The residue materials were examined again by µCT. Kruskal–Wallis and Mann–Whitney U tests sought the significance for residue volumes. One-way ANOVA and Tukey post hoc tests with the Bonferroni corrections sought significance for the duration (p = 0.05). Results: In the first examined µCT data, the mean (SD) capping material volumes of the PMTA, BD, and RMTA were 6.447 µm3 (1.086), 8.771 µm3 (0.491), and 8.114 µm3 (2.447), respectively. In the last examined µCT data, the median (IQR) residual volumes of the PMTA, BD, and RMTA were 0.051 µm3 (0.1), 0.313 µm3 (0.5), and 0.124 µm3 (0.1), respectively. A significant difference was found between BD and PMTA in the residual volumes (p < 0.05). The mean (SD) durations of the retrieving procedures of PMTA, BD, and RMTA were 19.83 min (2.34), 19.24 (3.60), and 22.04 (1.68), respectively (p = 0.063). Conclusions: Within the limitations of the presented study, it was concluded that the capping materials were largely removed from the root canals using a non-invasive approach. Nevertheless, this duration of the retrieving could be described as long.