40th ANNUAL MEETING OF THE EUROPEAN SOCIETY FOR PAEDIATRIC INFECTIOUS DISEASES (ESPID), Athens, Greece, 9 - 13 May 2022, vol.1, no.201, pp.201
Acute gastroenteritis is one of the most common causes of hospital admission in children. Treatment regimens differ depending on the pathogen. In our study, we aimed to evaluate the epidemiological and clinical features of pediatric patients whose gastrointestinal pathogen were detected by Multiplex PCR.
The study included 131 pediatric patients who were followed up at Eskişehir Osmangazi University, Pediatric Department between January 2018 and December 2021.Gastrointestinal pathogens were detected in stool samples by Multiplex PCR. The epidemiological and clinical features were reviewed retrospectively.
A total of 202 gastrointestinal pathogens were detected from the stool samples of 131 cases. 56% of the cases were male and mean age was 66 months. The most common symptoms were diarrhea, fever, vomiting. A single pathogen was detected in 85 cases and multiple pathogens were detected in 46 cases. The most common pathogens were EPEC , Clostridium difficile , Norovirus , Rotavirus , Salmonella , ETEC and Campylobacter jejuni. Stool culture was positive in 12%cases and microscopic examination positive in 13% cases. Probiotic treatment was given to 92% cases, and antimicrobial treatment (metroinidazole, ceftriaxone, azithromycin, oral vancomycin) to 26% cases. 42% of cases had chronic disease, 30% had a history of previous antibiotic use, and 13% had a history of hospitalization. Antibiotic use and detection of multiple factors was higher in patients with a history of chronic disease, patients who used antibiotics before, and patients who were hospitalized in intensive care units (p<0.05).
In the detection of gastrointestinal pathogens, the sensitivity of Multiplex PCR is higher than stool culture, direct microscopic examination and antigen tests. However, clinical findings, other microbiological tests and risk factors should be considered in the evaluation of the pathogenicity and treatment.