The golden ratio in facial symmetry

Prokopakis E. P., Vlastos I. M., Picavet V., Trenite G. N., Thomas R., CİNGİ C., ...More

RHINOLOGY, vol.51, no.1, pp.18-21, 2013 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Review
  • Volume: 51 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2013
  • Doi Number: 10.4193/rhin12.11
  • Journal Name: RHINOLOGY
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.18-21
  • Keywords: face, symmetry, beauty, golden ratio, AESTHETICS, BEAUTY, FACE
  • Eskisehir Osmangazi University Affiliated: Yes


Symmetry is believed to be a hallmark of appealing faces. However, this does not imply that the most aesthetically pleasing proportions are necessary those that arise from the simple division of the face into thirds or fifths. Based on the etymology of the word symmetry, as well as on specific examples and theories of beauty, we conclude that phi-value, a ratio also known as the golden ratio or the divine proportion, can also characterize symmetrical forms. Therefore, we propose the utilization of this ratio in facial aesthetics.