Objective: To determine the prevalence of dysmenorrhea among Turkish university students and to evaluate the effects of sociodemographic characteristics on the condition. Method: A cross-sectional survey of 857 students conducted by questionnaire in April 2007 at a university in Turkey. A visual analogue scale was used to assess the severity of dysmenorrhea. Data were analyzed using the chi(2) test and logistic regression analysis. Results: The prevalence of dysmenorrhea was 55.5% (444 out of 800 women). Risk of dysmenorrhea was approximately 1.5-times higher in women with a satisfactory spending allowance (OR 1.49; 95% Cl, 1.5-2.13); 3.5-times higher in women with a family history of dysmenorrhea (OR 3.48; 95% Cl, 2.54-4.78); 1.5-times higher in women who were underweight compared with overweight/obese women (OR 1.52; 95% Cl 0.99-2.33); 1.6-times higher in women who reported a history of smoking (OR 1.57; 95% Cl, 1.10-2.25); and 1.8-times higher in women with an excessive sugar intake (OR 1.77; 95% Cl, 1.15-2.72). Conclusion: The high prevalence of dysmenorrhea among Turkish university students is a significant health problem that requires attention. (C) 2009 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.