Evaluation of renal oxygenation by near-infrared spectroscopy during endoscopic injection of bulking agents in children with vesicoureteral reflux

Arslan Alıcı Ç., ŞANAL BAŞ S., Alıcı U., TOKAR B.

Pediatric Surgery International, vol.39, no.1, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Review
  • Volume: 39 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s00383-023-05407-z
  • Journal Name: Pediatric Surgery International
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, CAB Abstracts, CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Veterinary Science Database
  • Keywords: Children, Near-infrared spectroscopy, Renal oxygenation, Subureteric injection, Vesicoureteral reflux
  • Eskisehir Osmangazi University Affiliated: Yes


Background: Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is the measuring of regional tissue oxygenation (rSO2) by interpreting oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin signals that come back by transmitting near infrared light to tissues. The effect of endourological interventions on renal perfusion in children is largely unknown. Aims: To evaluate the effects of endoscopic injection of bulking agents (EIBA) for vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) on renal oxygenation (RO) using renal NIRS monitoring, which shows renal perfusion and oxygenation changes. Study design: Case–control study. Methods: Group I had bilateral inguinal surgery, Group II cystoscopy, and Group III, EIBA for VUR with 30 patients in each group. During the operation, vital signs, peripheral oxygen saturation, end-tidal carbon dioxide, and renal regional oxygen saturation index (rSO2) values by bilateral renal NIRS monitoring were recorded. NIRS values before induction (T0) to postoperative (Tend) were determined. A 20% or more reduction in renal rSO2 (%20↓rSO2) was considered significant. Group III was also evaluated as subgroup III-A (not having “%20↓rSO2”) and subgroup III-B (“%20↓rSO2”). Results: The rSO2 decrease was observed in the first 5 min for both sides in group III. The most significant drop was at T30 for the right kidney and a significant decrease in rSO2, 20% or more, was observed in 6 renal units of 4 patients having higher SFU grading and renal scar in group III. Conclusion: EIBA may transitionally impair renal oxygenation. Higher SFU grading and renal scar may increase the risk of renal hypoxia during EIBA.