© 2021 Elsevier B.V.Nasal secretory fluid proteomes (NSPs) can provide valuable information about the physiopathology and prognosis of respiratory tract diseases. This study aimed to determine changes in NSP by using proteomics in calves treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or LPS + choline. Healthy calves (n = 10) were treated with LPS (2 μg/kg/iv). Five minutes after LPS injection, the calves received a second iv injection with saline (n = 5, LPS + saline group) or saline containing 1 mg/kg choline (n = 5, LPS + choline group). Nasal secretions were collected before (baseline), at 1 h and 24 h after the treatments and analysed using label-free liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LCM[sbnd]S/MS). Differentially expressed proteins (>1.2-fold-change) were identified at the different time points in each group. A total of 52 proteins were up- and 46 were downregulated at 1 h and 24 h in the LPS + saline group. The upregulated proteins that showed the highest changes after LPS administration were small ubiquitin-related modifier-3 (SUMO3) and glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPX1), whereas the most downregulated protein was E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase (TRIM17). Treatment with choline reduced the number of upregulated (32 proteins) and downregulated proteins (33 proteins) in the NSPs induced by LPS. It can be concluded that the proteome composition of nasal fluid in calves changes after LPS, reflecting different pathways, such as the activation of the immunological response, oxidative stress, ubiquitin pathway, and SUMOylation. Choline treatment alters the NSP response to LPS.