Essential oils obtained by microdistillation front seven endemic Centaurea species [C. hierapolitana Boiss., C. cadmea Boiss., C. calolepis Boiss., C. cariensis Boiss. subsp. maculiceps (O. Schwarz) Wagenitz, C. cariensis Boiss. subsp. microlepis (Boiss.) Wagenitz, C. ensiformis P.H. Davis and C. reuterana Boiss. var. reuterana] and three widespread (C. cyanus L., C. depressa Bieb. and C. urvillei DC. subsp. urvillei) Centaurea L. (Asteraceae) taxa from Turkey were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) techniques. A total of 158 different compounds were identified. Significant and quantitative differences were observed among the species. Hexadecanoic acid (19.5-33.4%) was the main constituent of C. hierapolitana, C. cadmea, C. calolepis, C. reuterana var. reuterana, C. depressa and C. urvillei subsp. urvillei oils, while carvacrol (13.0-28.4%) was the major compound in, C. cariensis subsp. microlepis, C. cariensis subsp. maculiceps, C. ensiformis and C. cyanus oils.