@ Archives of Health Science and Research.All rights reserved.In the modern world, almost everyone associates the phenomenon of birth with oxytocin hormone. The endogenous (natural) oxytocin (endOT) released during the spontaneous delivery has important benefits, such as stimulation of the delivery, decreasing the effect of convulsions, accelerating the uterine involution process, reducing the risk of postpartum hemorrhage, regulating parenting behaviors, and maintaining breastfeeding, maternal well-being, and maternal-infant attachment. If oxytocin, which affects both mother and infant health, is not secreted sufficiently, uterine contractions cannot occur efficiently and the delivery process may be lengthened or stopped. In such cases, one of the most common interventions is to initiate or strengthen the birth by using a synthetic analogue of oxytocin. The relationship between synthetic oxytocin (synOT) and endOT, prescribed based on current clinical indications, is still unclear. However, some studies have reported that when the endOT system in the body is impaired, it causes problems for the mother and infant during the postpartum period. This traditional review was written to investigate the effects of synthetic oxytocin used during labor in the postpartum period.