This is the first comprehensive study to reveal genetic variation and population structure at genome level in six Anatolian (Anatolian Black, East Anatolian Red, South Anatolian Red, South Anatolian Yellow, Turkish Grey Steppe, and Zavot) and two cosmopolitan (Brown Swiss and Holstein Friesian) cattle breeds reared in Türkiye. Being 20 samples from each population, a total of 160 blood samples retrieved from representative herds were utilized to generate genomic libraries by ddRADseq method. Genomic libraries sequenced by Illumina HiSeq X Ten instrument revealed a total of 211,119 bi-allelic SNPs with high call rate. Compared to cosmopolitan cattle breeds, a higher genetic variation was observed in native Turkish cattle with an average of 0.380 observed heterozygosity. Genetic distances were comparatively low between native cattle breeds, whereas the highest genetic distance (0.064) was detected between South Anatolian Yellow and Brown Swiss. Population structure analyses showed that the native Turkish and cosmopolitan cattle breeds were clearly different from each other according to their phylogenetic origin. Besides, a high level of genetic admixture was detected among Anatolian Black, Turkish Grey Steppe, South Anatolian Red, and South Anatolian Yellow, whereas East Anatolian Red and Zavot were distinct from the other native and cosmopolitan cattle breeds. TreeMix algorithm under the assumption of one and two migration events revealed a migration route from Anatolian clade to Anatolian Black, while a second migration edge was drawn from Brown Swiss to East Anatolian Red. This study demonstrates the importance of national conservation studies in the native breeds whose population size has dramatically decreased. In addition, SNP arrays and next-generation sequencing platforms are recommended for future studies to reveal the genetic variation of other local Turkish livestock species to arrange effective conservation programs.