Prevalence of Ocular Surface Disease and Associated Risk Factors in Glaucoma Patients: A Survey Study of Ophthalmologists

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YILDIRIM N., Bozkurt B., YÜKSEL N., Ateş H., Altan-Yaycıoğlu R., OCAKOĞLU Ö., ...More

Turkish Journal of Ophthalmology, vol.52, no.5, pp.302-308, 2022 (ESCI) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 52 Issue: 5
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.4274/tjo.galenos.2021.20726
  • Journal Name: Turkish Journal of Ophthalmology
  • Journal Indexes: Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.302-308
  • Keywords: Glaucoma, ocular surface disease, medical treatment, benzalkonium chloride, survey study, QUALITY-OF-LIFE, BENZALKONIUM CHLORIDE, INTRAOCULAR-PRESSURE, SYMPTOMS, SIGNS, CYCLOSPORINE, BIMATOPROST, MANAGEMENT, BLINDNESS, IMPACT
  • Eskisehir Osmangazi University Affiliated: Yes


© 2022 by Turkish Ophthalmological Association.Objectives: This survey study of ophthalmologists investigated the prevalence and clinical manifestations of ocular surface disease (OSD) in glaucoma patients, assessment methods used, risk factors, glaucoma drugs considered responsible, and treatment approaches. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire prepared jointly by the Turkish Ophthalmological Association Cornea and Ocular Surface Society and Glaucoma Society using SurveyMonkey was sent to ophthalmologists via e-mail. The distribution of parameters was compared with chi-square test and p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Forty-five percent of the ophthalmologists reported that OSD was evident in least 25% of their patients. The most common symptom was redness (91.9%), while the most common ocular surface finding was conjunctival hyperemia (75.6%). The tests considered to be the most important in ocular surface assessment were ocular staining (38.7%) and tear film break-up time (TBUT) (21.9%). Ninety percent of the physicians stated that the main cause of OSD was benzalkonium chloride (BAC) in medications. Prostaglandin analogs and alpha-2 agonists were reported to be the most common medications causing OSD. In case of OSD, the ophthalmologists often switch to a glaucoma drug from a different group (38%), a non-preservative glaucoma drug (33.7%) or a drug with a preservative other than BAC (20.4%). Most physicians prescribed artificial tears (84.6%). Conclusion: In this cross-sectional survey study, ophthalmologists detected varying rates of OSD in glaucoma patients depending on chronic drug use and BAC exposure. Although ocular surface examination was performed by physicians, tests such as TBUT and ocular surface staining were rarely used. Detecting OSD in glaucoma patients and planning personalized treatment increase patient comfort, drug compliance, and treatment effectiveness. For this reason, it is important to prepare an algorithm for the management of comorbid OSD in glaucoma patients.