Effect of Potassium Aluminum Sulfate Application on the Viability of Fibroblasts on a CAD-CAM Feldspathic Ceramic before and after Thermocycling

Cakmak G., Akay C., Donmez M. B., Mumcu E., Akan H. S., Sasany R., ...More

MATERIALS, vol.15, no.12, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 15 Issue: 12
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/ma15124232
  • Journal Name: MATERIALS
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Aerospace Database, CAB Abstracts, Communication Abstracts, Compendex, INSPEC, Metadex, Veterinary Science Database, Directory of Open Access Journals, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Keywords: alum, cytotoxicity, feldspathic ceramic, fibroblast, thermocycling, COLOR, SHADE, CYTOTOXICITY, CEMENTS
  • Eskisehir Osmangazi University Affiliated: Yes


Potassium aluminum sulfate (alum) is a known adjuvant, which has been used as a mordant in textile industry for color fixation. This material has potential to be incorporated into dentistry for color stability, yet its toxicity first needs to be evaluated. The present study aimed to evaluate the cytotoxic potential of potassium aluminum sulfate (alum) on fibroblasts when applied onto feldspathic ceramic before and after thermocycling. Forty-eight feldspathic ceramic specimens were divided into four groups (FC: no alum application or thermocycling; FCT: thermocycling without alum application; FA: alum application without thermocycling; FAT: alum application and thermocycling) (n = 12). Cell viability was assessed by using a tetrazolium salt 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphnyltetrazolium bromide assay at 24 and 72 h, and cell cultures without any ceramic specimens served as control (C). One sample from each material group was further analyzed with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Cell viability at different time intervals within each group was analyzed with Friedman tests, while Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to compare the test groups within each time interval. Pairwise comparisons were further resolved by using Wilcoxon tests (a = 0.05). C had lower (p = 0.01) and FA had higher (p = 0.019) cell viability after 72 h. After 24 h, the highest cell viability was observed in C (p <= 0.036). After 72 h, the differences between C and FA, C and FAT, FC and FA, and FCT and FAT were nonsignificant (p > 0.05). Cell viability was not affected by alum application or thermocycling at any time interval (p >= 0.631). EDX analysis showed an increase in potassium concentration in FA and FAT when compared with FC and FCT. Regardless of the time interval, alum application onto feldspathic ceramic and thermocycling did not influence the cell viability.