© 2021, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature.Shot peening is generally an application that generates compressive residual stress on the surface of the materials and increases the fatigue life of the parts. Traditionally, control of shot-peened parts can only be done in secondary ways. In this study, using electromechanical impedance (EMI) method, which is used as a structural health monitoring method, AISI 304 stainless steel plates shot-peened with different parameters were examined. According to the study, the damage caused by the shot peening process can be determined using the root mean square deviation (RMSD) damage metric. This study is the first to track shot-peened surfaces using the EMI method. With this method, for the first time in the literature, the effects of different process parameters on shot-peened samples were carried out with the EMI method. Additionally, the hardness distribution of section and surface roughness measurements are conducted. A new approach is proposed for the quality control of the shot-peened samples in the final form, which provides the chance of direct evaluation from the parts.