in: Waste and Byproducts in Cement-Based Materials, Jorge de Brito,Carlos Thomas,César Medina,Francisco Agrela, Editor, Woodhead Publishing Limited , Cambridge, pp.601-615, 2021
Global warming is one of the major environmental problems ever to challenge humankind; its main cause is the emission of greenhouse gases, especially carbon dioxide
(CO2) (Boesch and Hellweg, 2010; Zhang et al., 2016). In order to address this threat,
and the attendant threat of long-term climate change, 195 countries reached an agreement, in Paris in December 2015, to take action to decrease the emissions of greenhouse gases. The aim is to limit the global average temperature increase to a level less
than 2°C by 2030 (Yoon et al., 2018). The agreement was approved by 55 countries,
which were jointly responsible for a minimum of 55% of global greenhouse gas emissions (TCMA, 2020).
The manufacture of construction materials is the second greatest source of greenhouse gas emissions, and causes about 33% of the global total of CO2 emissions
(Zhang et al., 2016). Concrete is widely used as a construction material, and as a result
its production is prominent among the relevant environmental impacts (Hossain et al.,
2018). Recently, there has been a considerable increase in cement production, due to
demand for cement-based materials. Industrialization and urbanization have resulted
in a huge energy requirement, along with a lack of resources and increased carbon
emissions. Assessment of cement production is important in order to attenuate the
impacts of the production processes on climate change (Humphreys and
Mahasenan, 2002; C¸ ankaya and Pekey, 2019). Significant environmental hazards
can be observed during the life cycle of the production of cement-based materials,
due to the massive utilization of cement and raw materials such as aggregate. Using
recycled wastes or mineral admixtures in the production of cement-based materials
might be considered as a possible route towards “green” (environmentally friendly)
construction (Ansari and Seifi, 2013).
The aim of this study is to define possible energy-saving and emissions-reduction
opportunities during the manufacture of cement-based materials. This may assist
policy-makers to define the future construction industry emissions targets relating
to cement-based materials. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) can be utilized to identify
Waste and Byproducts in Cement-Based Materials. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-820549-5.00022-X
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the adverse environmental effects of manufacturing cement-based materials, such as
gaseous emissions or energy consumption (Huntzinger and Eatmon, 2009). Thus,
decision-makers can invest in the development tools for energy demand and emissions
so that greenhouse gases can be managed (Song and Chen, 2014).