© 2020 Elsevier LtdMesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are powerful immunomodulatory cells. The effects of the aging on these abilities of MSCs have not been adequately clarified. In this study, alterations in immunomodulatory abilities of MSCs caused by aging were investigated. For this, dental pulp (DP) MSCs and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of elderly and young donors were co-cultured age-matched and cross. We detected that the effects of DP-MSCs on Th1 and Th2 cells and their specific cytokines IFN-γ and IL-4 are not affected by aging. However, we observed that young and elderly DP-MSCs have different effects on Th17 and Treg cells. Th17 frequencies of young and elderly PBMCs were significantly increased only by young DP-MSCs, in contrast, Treg frequencies were significantly increased by elderly DP-MSCs. IL-6, IL-17a and HGF levels of both young and elderly PBMCs showed a significant increase only by young DP-MSCs, but TGF-β levels were significantly increased only by elderly DP-MSCs. The oral cavity is home to a rich microflora. The interactions of dental tissues with this microflora can lead them to acquire different epigenetic modifications. Aging can affect the microflora composition of the oral cavity and change this process in different directions. According to our findings, DP-MSCs are effective cells in the regulation of CD4+ T cells, and their effects on Th1 and Th2 cells were not affected by aging. However, pleiotropic molecules IL-6 and HGF expressions, which are important in dental and bone tissue regeneration, decreased significantly in elderly DP-MSCs. This situation may have indirectly made a difference in the modulation effects of young and elderly DP-MSCs on the Th17 and Treg cells.