In this paper we summarize the current knowledge on the distribution of Lumbricus terrestris on the Balkan Peninsula. For this purpose we reviewed all published data on its distribution in addition to original data from our old institute collection and recent field investigations. The objective of this paper is to analyze the whole list of records in order to present a general overview of the distribution of Lumbricus terrestris on the Balkan Peninsula. Based on literature data, we also give some possible explanations of ecological influences on the current range characteristics. It belongs to peregrine species native to the Palearctic but has been introduced all over the world. During the last 30 years this species has been recorded from many localities in Serbia, Bulgaria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and continental parts of Croatia and Slovenia, while it is not present in the Mediterranean part of the Balkans (Turkey, Greece, southern Croatia, southern Montenegro, and Albania). Until the present, the southernmost findings of Lumbricus terrestris have been in the southwestern part of Macedonia.