The 39th Annual Meeting of the European Society of Paediatric Infectious Diseases (ESPID), Geneve, Switzerland, 24 - 29 May 2021, vol.1, no.504, pp.826
Background: Human herpesvirus-6 is recognized as a central nervous system pathogen and encephalitis is associated with high mortality and morbidity, especially in immunocompromised patients. We describe three previously healthy children with human herpesvirus-6 meningitis.
Case Presentation: Case 1: A 18- month-old boy brought with fever and vomiting. There was no significant finding on physical examination. Laboratory findings: leucocyte:16.500/mm3 , C-reactive protein: 82 mg/dL, cerebrospinal fluid glucose was 48 mg/dL, protein concentration was 92 mg/dL while serum glucose was 78 mg/dL. cerebral spinal fluid revealed human herpesvirus-6 and all cultures were negative. He was treated with only symptomatic treatment without antibiotics. Case 2: A 17-month-old girl was brought with restlessness, decreased nutrition, and high fever. Physical examination and laboratory findings were unremarkable. A lumbar puncture was performed because there was no fever focus. Human herpesvirus-6 was amplified from cerebrospinal fluid by a polymerase chain reaction. She was successfully discharged after antipyretic and fluid support. Case 3: A 2 month-old boy was brought with fever and decreased breastfeeding. Physical examination was normal except for tension in the anterior fontanel. Her cerebrospinal fluid glucose was 42 mg/dL, protein concentration was 102 mg/dL while serum glucose was 93 mg/dL. Firstly cefotaxime and ampicillin treatment was started. Cerebrospinal fluid revealed human herpesvirus-6 and stopped antibiotics. He was treated with only symptomatic treatment and discharged successfully.
Learning Points/Discussion: Human herpesvirus-6 is a common virus that can cause nearly universal
infection in children. It typically manifests as an acute febrile illness. However, it should not be forgotten
that it can be presented with meningoencephalitis.