Objective: Gingival recession is a common manifestation of periodontal disease, but is also associated with several risk factors. In this study, we investigated prevalence of gingival recession and assessed various risk indicators in a university dental hospital in Turkey. Materials and methods: The study group consisted of 831 persons (537 females, 294 males). Gingival recession, dental plaque, calculus, tobacco consumption, toothbrushing frequency, traumatic toothbrushing and high frenum were assessed. Gingival recession scored as present whenever the free gingival margin was apical to the cemento-enamel junction and root surface was exposed. Results: Overall, the prevalence of gingival recession was 78.2%. The gingival recession for buccal surfaces measured approximately between 1 and 2 mm was 17.4%. The number of gingival recession site of male subjects was significantly higher than that of the female ones (P < 0.05). The dental calculus and plaque levels of mandibular teeth were significantly higher than those of the maxillary teeth (P < 0.05). The multiple regression analyses showed that age, smoking duration, traumatic toothbrushing and high frenum are significant contributors to gingival recession. Conclusions: Periodontal condition is very high in this population. High level of gingival recession in this population is significantly associated with a high level of dental plaque and calculus, male gender, smoking duration, toothbrushing frequency, traumatic toothbrushing and high frenum.