Ondokuz Mayıs Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, vol.39, no.3, pp.192-209, 2020 (Peer-Reviewed Journal)
The use of story, as a teaching material, is indispensable when it comes to effective teaching Studies in the field of cognitive psychology show that children who read the texts in the story form can recall 88% of the ideas presented in the story. Although the purpose and content of usage are different in the application dimensions in the classroom, it is used in education as a teaching method in order to provide the student with the story, scientific perspective, and thinking and to realize the conceptual understanding (Çakar, 2007). Science stories are extremely important sources that try to make relevant and consistent scientific information meaningful for students (Millar and Osborne, 1998). Educational games help individuals to use their abilities to comprehend new things, to get attention, to struggle, to think critically and to develop their physical and mental abilities; These are all educational and instructive games (Tezel and Karacalı, 2018). Educational games are activities that enable students to learn course subjects more easily using the game form or improve students' problem-solving skills. (Demirel, Seferoglu and Yagci, 2003). The teacher should explain to the students the name of the educational game to be used in the course, the purpose of use and how to play it. In addition, the teacher should make planning in advance about the selection of the appropriate place and the necessary tools, time and security, to be prepared for the lesson and to explain the rules clearly in order to ensure the classroom management (Tezel and Karacalı, 2018). In science teaching, the use of scientific stories and educational games to support each other; it will have a wide range of positive effects such as the development of effective, cognitive and social skills characteristics of students (Ataizi and Tezel, 2018). As a result of the literature review, in recent years, many studies have been carried out for the use of scientific story and educational play separately in the science course; It is noteworthy that there are small number of studies (Coşkun, Akarsu ve Kariper, 2012; Seagram ve Amory, 2004) about the use of these two techniques in support of each other. For this reason, the present study aimed to determine the effect of science education supported by the scientific story and educational play activity on students' learning achievement. The present study make an important contribution to educators and researchers by showing the effectiveness of this activity plays in the success of student learning. In this study, sequential explanatory design was used which is a combination of both quantitative and qualitative research methods. In the quantitative part of the study, the experimental research method was preferred and a single group pre-test - post-test was included in the weak experimental design category. Since the aim of the study was to determine the effect of educational games containing science story on the same individuals on students' learning achievement, one group pre-test, and a post-test application was preferred. In this pattern, there is a working group with no control group and no random assignment. In the qualitative part of the research, the action research method was used. The study group of the study consisted of 2 boys and 9 girls (n = 11) in the eighth grade of a secondary school affiliated to Bilecik Province National Education Directorate. Easy sampling method was used in the study group. In the easy sampling method, the working group is composed of individuals that are most easily accessible, provided that it is appropriate to the structure of the study (Gürbüz and Şahin, 2018). In the quantitative part of the study, used a multiple-choice and one open-ended achievement test developed Karamustafaoğlu, Coştu and Ayas (2005) for the concept learning on "Periodic Table and Sekizinci Sınıf ‘Periyodik Sistem‘ Konusunda Bilimsel Öykü | 209 Properties”. In the qualitative part of the study, an interview form developed by the researcher consisting of eight questions was used as a data collection tool. Find Your Place in the Periodic Table activity developed by Tezel and Karacalı (2018) was applied, which aims to teach the periodic table with the help of learning and educational games through science history. SPSS 21.0 statistical package program was used for the analysis of quantitative data. Students' scores obtained from pre-test and post-tests were compared with using two separate t-tests. In the qualitative data part, the responses obtained from the students during the interview made into a report by the researcher. The data were analyzed with the report prepared by the researcher. When the answers of the students in the pre-test application of multiple-choice questions are examined, the students' significant lack of conceptual knowledge was noted. After the subject was supported by activity, it was determined that the learning achievement of the students changed positively. The opinions of the students were collected after the completion of the lessons/practices with the students. Student views; that the course is fun and instructive with a scientific story and educational play; that activities involving concepts related to the subject facilitate learning and the course is fluent; they want these activities to be used frequently in lessons. In line with the findings, the subject of periodic table game and its features is supported by educational games supported with scientific history; It can be said that it supports students' active participation in class and has a positive effect on students' learning achievement. The results of the present study support the findings of the study in which Coşkun, Akarsu and Kariper (2012) investigated the effect of the use of educational games containing scientific story in the 7th-grade science course on the academic achievement of the students. In their research, Coşkun, Akarsu and Kariper (2012) stated that the use of educational games including scientific story in science teaching was effective in increasing the students' interest and curiosity towards the course and increasing their success. Some researches including scientific stories (Coşkun, Akarsu and Kariper, 2012; Demircioğlu, Demircioğlu and Ayas, 2006; Dincel, 2005; Erten, Kiray and Şen-Gümüş, 2013; Gölcük, 2017; ŞenGümüş, 2009; Mutonyi, 2015; Ritchie, Tomas and Tones, 2011; Tao, 2002) show that; while the subjects containing abstract concepts are studied, if the science course is supported with scientific story, students' academic achievement increases and they understand the principles, concepts, and generalizations about science more easily. The researches studies involving educational games (Bayat, Kılıçarslan and Şentürk, 2014; Biner, Pala, Yıldız, Cumurcu and Şenel, 2016; Çavuş and Balçın, 2017; Demir, 2012; Kaptan and Korkmaz, 1999; Karamustafaoğlu and Baran, 2020; Karamustafaoğlu and Yurtyapan, 2016) show that; while some complex topics are covered, if educational games are included in the science course, students' academic achievement increases and helps them develop a more positive approach to learning complex topics. According to the results of the research, the following suggestions can be made;
• Especially in the teaching of abstract concepts, the teacher; should be competent in using different activities to the characteristics of the students.
• In science education, scientific stories and educational games can be used to provide students with concepts that are difficult to understand or imagine about the subject and to increase students' interest and curiosity.
• Specialist in this field can contribute to the use of educational games including scientific story
activities on various topics.
Araştırmanın amacı, sekizinci sınıf periyodik sistem konusunda bilimsel öykü içeren eğitsel oyun etkinliğinin/uygulamasının etkililiğini incelemektir. Çalışma grubunu Bilecik’te bir ortaokulun sekizinci sınıfında öğrenim gören öğrenciler oluşturmuştur. Çalışma grubunun oluşturulmasında kolayda örnekleme yöntemi kullanılmıştır. Bu araştırmada hem nicel hem de nitel araştırma yöntemlerini içeren karma desenlerden açımlayıcı sıralı desen kullanılmıştır. Araştırmanın nicel kısmında deneysel araştırma yöntemi tercih edilmiş ve zayıf deneysel desen kategorisine dâhil olan tek grup ön test - son test deseni kullanılmıştır. Araştırmanın nicel kısmında veri toplama aracı olarak, kavram öğrenimine yönelik bir adet çoktan seçmeli, bir adet açık uçlu başarı testi ön test ve son test olarak uygulanmıştır. Araştırmanın nitel kısmında ise eylem (aksiyon) araştırması yönteminin kullanılması tercih edilmiş ve veri toplama aracı olarak bir görüşme formu kullanılmıştır. Nicel verilerin analizi için SPSS 21.0 istatistik paket programı kullanılmıştır. Her iki başarı testi 100 puan üzerinden hesaplanmış ve her soruya 20 puan verilmiştir. Elde edilen verilerin normal dağıldığı tespit edilmiştir. Bu nedenle her iki başarı testinde, öğrencilerin ön test ve son testlerden elde ettiği puanlar iki ayrı t-testi ile karşılaştırılmıştır. Nitel aşamada ise görüşme esnasında öğrencilerden elde edilen yanıtlar araştırmacı tarafından rapor hâline getirilerek, veriler analiz edilmiştir. Araştırmanın sonucunda, bilim öyküsü içeren eğitsel oyun etkinliğinin, öğrencilerin periyodik sistemi öğrenme başarılarında olumlu yönde etkisinin olduğu belirlenmiştir. Öğrencilerin büyük çoğunluğu; etkinliğin öğretici ve eğlenceli olduğu, derse olan ilgilerini arttırdığı, bilimsel öykü ve eğitsel oyun etkinliklerinin fen bilimleri dersinde sıklıkla kullanılmasını istedikleri yönünde görüş bildirmişlerdir. Bu doğrultuda, bilimsel öykü içeren eğitsel oyunların fen bilimleri derslerinde kullanılabilecek etkili bir uygulama olduğu ve öğretmenlerin derslerinde, bu tür etkinliklere de yer vermeleri önerilir.