Enrichment of the surface functional groups of activated carbon by modification method

Demiral İ. , Şamdan C. , Demiral H.

Surfaces and Interfaces, cilt.22, 2021 (SCI Expanded İndekslerine Giren Dergi) identifier

  • Yayın Türü: Makale / Tam Makale
  • Cilt numarası: 22
  • Basım Tarihi: 2021
  • Doi Numarası: 10.1016/j.surfin.2020.100873
  • Dergi Adı: Surfaces and Interfaces


© 2020The wastes formed from various industries' activities draw attention to their ability to be used as a natural adsorbent or as a source for activated carbon production. In this study, we aimed to produce activated carbon rich in surface functional groups from biomass. Surface functional groups of activated carbons (AC) were enriched by HNO3 oxidation. The activated carbons were synthesized with H3PO4 using peach stones (PSs), fruit juice industrial wastes, and can be found in abundance in the World and Turkey. The activated carbons' surface properties, such as BET surface area, micro-mesopore volume, and average pore diameter, were determined. The activated carbon with the highest surface area was produced with the impregnation ratio of 3/1 at 400 °C (3AC400) as 1399 m2/g. The microporous structures of the 3AC400 synthesized were determined to be more than the mesopore structures. The effects of acid modification on the surface of 3AC400, whose surface characterization was completed, were investigated using HNO3 at different concentrations (15, 30, 45, and 69% (v/v) HNO3). When the nitric acid concentration used in the modification was increased from 15% to 69%, the BET surface area of pure activated carbon (3AC400) decreased from 1399 m2/g to 15.44 m2/g. Besides, the micropores were wholly clogged, and the mesopore volume decreased from 0.127 cm3/g to 0.042 cm3/g. Vmic/Vtop of 3AC400 was reduced from 0.813 to 0.008. Modification using in this study was found to have a significant effect on the surface area of 3AC400. Nitric acid led micropores to collapse. So the structure of the surface of modified activated carbons has become more mesopores. The surface properties and surface functional group diversity of the synthesized modified activated carbons by various methods were investigated. With 69% nitric acid modification, the amount of carboxyl, lactone, and phenyl groups on the activated carbon surface was increased by 5.3, 9.75, and 9.00, respectively. The nitric acid modification affected the diversity of surface functional groups such as lactone> phenol> carboxyl. As the nitric acid concentration increased, the modified samples' total surface acidity increased, and IEP values shifted from 3.6 to the left. The total acidity value for the 69NAC/90/2 sample has increased approximately seven times that of the total acidity value of 3AC400.