Background: Mesenteric ischemia is a frequently encountered disease in surgical clinics, difficult to diagnose, and very mortal if not treated. Our study investigated the effects of astaxanthin, which is known to have potent antioxidant properties and is also known to have anti-inflammatory effects on ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Methods: A total of 32 healthy Wistar albino female rats were used in our study. Subjects were randomized and equally divided into 4 groups; control (laparotomy group only), I/R (transient mesenteric ischemia group only), astaxanthin 1 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg doses. The transient ischemia time was 60 minutes and the reperfusion time was 120 minutes. Tissue samples were taken from intracardiac blood and terminal ileum after reperfusion. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), malondialdehyde (MDA) from blood samples, interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), Caspase-3, P53 tests from terminal ileum were studied. Tissue samples were also taken for histopathological evaluation. Results: At the end of the study, both doses of astaxanthin were found to significantly reduce MDA level, CAT, and SOD enzymatic activity, whereas higher doses of astaxanthin significantly reduced MDA level, CAT, and SOD enzyme activities. In addition, cytokines such as TNFα, IL-1 and IL-6 were found to be reduced at both doses of astaxanthin, but only significantly inhibited at higher doses. We observed that inhibition of apoptosis reduced caspase-3 activity and P53 and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) fragmentation. Conclusion: Astaxanthin, a potent antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory, significantly reduces ischemia and reperfusion injury, especially when used at a dose of 10 mg/kg. These data need to be confirmed by larger animal series and clinical studies.