Utilization of three-layers heterogeneous mammographic phantom through MCNPX code for breast and chest radiation dose levels at different diagnostic X-ray energies: A Monte Carlo simulation study

ALMisned G., Elshami W., KILIÇ G., Rabaa E., Zakaly H. M. H., Ene A., ...More

Frontiers in Public Health, vol.11, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 11
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.3389/fpubh.2023.1136864
  • Journal Name: Frontiers in Public Health
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), Scopus, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Directory of Open Access Journals
  • Keywords: mammography, breast dosimetry, Monte Carlo (MC), MCNPX, X-ray, DOSIMETRY
  • Eskisehir Osmangazi University Affiliated: Yes


Introduction: We report the breast and chest radiation dose assessment for mammographic examinations using a three-layer heterogeneous breast phantom through the MCNPX Monte Carlo code. Methods: A three-layer heterogeneous phantom along with compression plates and X-ray source are modeled. The validation of the simulation code is obtained using the data of AAPM TG-195 report. Deposited energy amount as a function of increasing source energy is calculated over a wide energy range. The behavioral changes in X-ray absorption as well as transmission are examined using the F6 Tally Mesh extension of MCNPX code. Moreover, deposited energy amount is calculated for modeled body phantom in the same energy range. Results and discussions: The diverse distribution of glands has a significant impact on the quantity of energy received by the various breast layers. In layers with a low glandular ratio, low-energy primary X-ray penetrability is highest. In response to an increase in energy, the absorption in layers with a low glandular ratio decreased. This results in the X-rays releasing their energy in the bottom layers. Additionally, the increase in energy increases the quantity of energy absorbed by the tissues around the breast.