In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of carvacrol (CA), a widely used phytochemical having anti-oxidant and neuroprotective effects, on transient receptor potential (TRP) channels in an animal model of Parkinson's disease (PD). A total of 64 adult male Spraque-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: sham-operated, PD animal model (unilateral intrastriatal injections of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), 6 & mu;g/& mu;l), PD + vehicle (dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)) treatment, and PD + CA treatment (10 mg/kg, every other day, for 14 days). Half of the brain samples of substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and striatum (CPu) were collected for immunohistochemistry and the remaining half were used for molecular analyses. CA treatment significantly increased the density of dopaminergic neurons immunolabeled with tyrosine hydroxylase and transient receptor potential canonical 1 (TRPC1) channel in the SNpc of PD animals. In contrast, the density of astrocytes immunolabeled with glial fibrillary acetic acid and transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channel significantly decreased following CA treatment in the CPu of PD animals. RT-PCR and western blot analyses showed that 6-OHDA administration significantly reduced TRPA1 and TPRPC1 mRNA expression and protein levels in both SNpc and CPu. CA treatment significantly upregulated TRPA1 expression in PD group, while TRPC1 levels did not display an alteration. Based on this data it was concluded that CA treatment might protect the number of dopaminergic neurons by reducing the reactive astrogliosis and modulating the expression of TRP channels in both neurons and astrocytes in an animal model of PD.