The percentage of myeloma cells in bone marrow is subsequently an important index of disease in patients with multiple myeloma (MM). Bone marrow myeloma cells can be detected by strong CD38/CD138 positivity and light scatter characteristics using flow cytometry. The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between the degree of Tc-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile (MIBI) uptake and the percentage of CD38/CD138 expressing myeloma cells in the bone marrow of patients with MM. A total of 15 patients with MM (mean age: 61.7 +/- 2.4 years; 7 F and 8 M) were included in the study. Tc-99m MIBI imaging was obtained 20 min after injection of 740 MBq Tc-99m MIBI. Planar spot images of the pelvis and thorax were acquired. The uptake of Tc-99m MIBI in the bone marrow was evaluated using a qualitative and also a semiquantitative scoring system for the bone marrow in areas that included the proximal femurs, anterior iliac crest, and sternum. In all patients, flow cytometry was performed for assessing the percentage of CD38/CD138 expressing myeloma cells in the bone marrow samples. There was a statistically significant positive correlation between the percentage of CD38/CD138 expressing plasma cells in bone marrow and both mean qualitative (r=0.689, p=0.005) and semiquantitative (r=0.669, p=0.006) results of Tc-99m MIBI uptake. In conclusion, our results indicate that increased Tc-99m MIBI uptake of bone marrow is related to the percentage of plasma cell infiltration of bone marrow. Tc-99m MIBI bone marrow imaging may be a useful tool for predicting the levels of myeloma cells in bone marrow of patients with MM.