MICRO-KARSTIFICATION IN A STALAGMITE FROM KÜPELI CAVE, SOUTHERN TURKEY MIKRO-KOROZIJA STALAGMITA V JAMI KÜPELI, JUŽNA TURČIJA


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Eren M., Palvanov M., KADİR S., Kapur S.

Acta Carsologica, vol.51, no.2, pp.5-19, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 51 Issue: 2
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.3986/ac.v51i2.10589
  • Journal Name: Acta Carsologica
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Aqualine, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), Geobase
  • Page Numbers: pp.5-19
  • Keywords: Cave, dissolution, micro karstification, mineralogy, speleothem, stalagmite
  • Eskisehir Osmangazi University Affiliated: Yes

Abstract

This article deals with micro-karstification forming abundant dissolution features in a stalagmite from Küpeli Cave in southern Turkey. Dissolution occurs when cave water enriched with CO2 from the soil and epikarst, and in certain conditions also from the cave atmosphere, seeps into the stalagmite. Here, we hypothesise that water is transmitted from the former surface of the stalagmite to the interior by the roughly vertical or dia-gonal notch-shaped pores formed by the enlargement of interc-rystalline pores by dissolution. These slightly elongated pores randomly developed in the stalagmite under repeated conditions at different stages of the stalagmite formation, affecting the last few macroscopic growth layers (lamina set under the microscope) from its former surface, finally its upper end was covered by a newly forming growth layer. Later, when this water reaches the relatively more permeable growth layer surfaces, it flows along these surfaces, and diffuse dissolution features form. The dissolution features include micro-scale pitted and etched surface structures, rounded and enlarged crystal boun-daries and intercrystalline pores, and the breakdown of relatively large crystals (≥ 4 µm) into nm sized smaller crystal agg-regates. In the dissolution pores, calcite re-precipitation occurs as rim and pore-filling cements when the percolation water is sufficiently saturated with calcium carbonate in the stalagmite. Under the repeated conditions, the dissolution was followed by calcite re-precipitation in the stalagmite, probably due to sea-sonal variation in CO2 and CaCO3 contents of the water in the epikarst zone as well as within the stalagmite.