Objective: To clarify the anatomy of the popliteal artery and to determine key variations in the bifurcation patterns of the popliteal artery. Material and Methods: The popliteal fossae of 28 (12 right and 16 left) fixed lower extremities were carefully dissected, and the arterial pattern from the distal edge of the adductor hiatus (AH) to the proximal portion of each leg was documented. A digital caliper was used to measure the arterial length. The transverse plane between the distal edges of the femoral condyles (FCs), which is easily located, was used as reference. Results: The mean length of the popliteal artery (PA) from the AH to the FCs was 9.26 +/- 1.63 cm on the right side and 10.08 +/- 2.12 cm on the left side, while the mean distance from the FCs to the site of bifurcation into the anterior and posterior tibial arteries was 7.20 +/- 1.98 cm on the right side and 6.69 +/- 1.15 cm on the left. The average arterial length from the level of the FCs to the site of origin of the peroneal artery was 10.01 +/- 1.78 cm on the right side and 9.18 +/- 1.07 cm on the left side, and the PA/extremity ratio was 0.21 +/- 0.04 on the right side and 0.22 +/- 0.04 on the left. Variable patterns of adult popliteal artery termination were observed. Conclusion: The data presented here can help reduce the complication rate and improve the success rate of both urgent and elective vascular procedures, which often require exposure of the popliteal artery.