Establishing a dose-response relationship between opioid use and hypogonadism: A retrospective case-control study

Eshraghi Y., Hanks N., Rooney S., Ata F. M. Y., Velasco C., Guirguis M., ...More

Ochsner Journal, vol.21, no.3, pp.249-253, 2021 (ESCI) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 21 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.31486/toj.20.0103
  • Journal Name: Ochsner Journal
  • Journal Indexes: Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, CINAHL, EMBASE, Directory of Open Access Journals
  • Page Numbers: pp.249-253
  • Keywords: Analgesics-opioid, hypogonadism, opioid-related disorders, TESTOSTERONE, THERAPY, HEROIN, MEN
  • Eskisehir Osmangazi University Affiliated: Yes


© 2021 by the author(s); licensee Ochsner Journal, Ochsner Clinic Foundation, New Orleans, LA.Background: Opioid-induced androgen deficiency (OPIAD) related to chronic, long-acting opioid use can be a significant detriment to patient quality of life. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between chronic opioid use and hypogonadism. Methods: A single-center, retrospective, matched case-control analysis of 357 males (94 cases, 263 controls, aiming for 1:4 matching) was performed. Study subjects were ages 18 to 80 years and had a diagnosis of chronic opioid use. Patients with a hypogonadism diagnosis were matched to patients without a hypogonadism diagnosis by age, ethnicity, and body mass index. The maximum morphine equivalent daily dose (MEDD) was compared in each group. Results: A significant linear association between MEDD and the odds of developing hypogonadism (P<0.001) in males with chronic use of opioids was observed, with an odds ratio of 1.44 (95% CI 1.16-1.78) by 100-unit difference in maximum MEDD. Conclusion: Results showed a significant, positive linear association between chronic opioid dose and the odds of developing hypogonadism in males. This higher index of suspicion of OPIAD could lead to earlier recognition of symptoms and increase the positive predictive value of diagnostic laboratory tests.