The aim of this research was to evaluate the push-out bond strengths (PBSs) of three different calcium silicate-based cements abbreviated as Group 1 (NeoPutty), Group 2 (Biodentine), and Group 3 (MTA Repair HP). 15 root slices of 1 +/- 0.1-mm thickness were obtained from the middle triad of the roots of 5 maxillary premolar teeth. In each slice, three canal-like cavities parallel to the root canal were created for the experimental groups (n = 15). After endodontic irrigation, Group 1: NeoPutty, Group 2: Biodentine, and Group 3: MTA Repair HP were placed to the cavities, randomly. After the PBS test, all samples were examined scanning electron microscope (SEM) to determine failure patterns. To evaluate the chemical composition of the materials, three samples, one from each group, were prepared. Samples were prepared using plexiglass molds of 10-mm diameter and 2-mm thickness. The materials were then examined by an energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX, Inca, Oxford Inst.) for surface element analysis. The values obtained from tests were evaluated statistically significant (p < 0.05). After the PBS test, while there was no statistically significant difference between NeoPutty and MTA Repair HP, there was a difference with Biodentine. Based on the findings from this study, it was concluded that Biodentine has the highest PBS values.