The aim of this research was to test the independent theoretical model by examining the direct effect of self-esteem on teachers' professional motivation and the indirect effect through the mediating role of self-efficacy. Self-esteem was regarded as the predictor variable while professional motivation was treated as the predicted variable and self-efficacy as the mediator variable within the present cross-sectional research, which aimed to test a causally designed model within the context of the relationships taking place in the literature. The participants of the research consisted of 139 mathematics teachers who were chosen by cluster sampling from 37 different primary schools. The data were gathered through the use of Self-Esteem Scale (Aricak, 1999), Ohio Teacher Self-Efficacy Scale (Tschannen-Moran ve Woolfolk-Hoy, 2001) and Inventory of Professional Motivation (Yildirim, 2006). Structural equation modelling was used to test the theoretical model of the research in order to combine the measurement error in both latent and observed variables. The findings revealed that self-esteem effects the teachers' professional motivation negatively and level of self-efficacies positively. Moreover, the partially mediator effect of self-efficacy on the effect of self-esteem on teachers' professional motivation was positive.