Inhalation of chemical and particulate products of smoke is one of the principal determinant of mortality following burn injury. Inflammatory responses have been implicated in the pathogenesis of lung injury after smoke inhalation. In the current study, we tested the inhibitory effect of Fucoidin on the neutrophil rolling stage of inflammatory response and determined the degree of pulmonary injury. Fifteen rats were divided into three groups: sham group (n: 5) of rats inhaled room air; control group (n: 5) inhaled smoke, and experimental group inhaled smoke and received Fucoidin. All the rats were sacrificed 24 h after smoke inhalation. The trachea and lungs were removed totally; samples for histopathological and biochemical (myeloperoxidase (MPO)) analysis were taken from each lung and trachea. Morphologic studies using light and electron microscopes showed a decrease in lung parenchymal and tracheoepithelial injury in the experiment group of rats. Also, biochemical analysis of tissue MPO was significantly lower in test group than in control group. These results suggest that the inhibition of neutrophil rolling leads to a reduction of neutrophil invasion to pulmonary parenchyma and trachea, which may be beneficial for attenuating neutrophil mediated inhalation injury. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.