The efficacy of prophylactic and early fluconazole treatment on experimental systemic candidiasis was investigated in neutropenic rabbits. Fifteen rabbits were used and divided into three groups: fluconazole was started 24 h before the inoculation of Candida albicans in the first group, and 24 h after the inoculation in the second group. The third group was the control group without antifungal therapy. Prophylactic and early fluconazole treatment for 7 days after C. albicans inoculation did not reduce the mortality and tissue culture positivity in the rabbits significantly. Four of the five rabbits survived 7 days both in the prophylactic and early treatment groups. However, only one rabbit survived for 7 days in the control group. In diagnostic procedures, histopathological examination and evaluation with periodic acid-Schiff stain was found to be the most sensitive. In this study, prophylactic and early fluconazole treatment were found to be insufficent for treatment of systemic candidiasis in neutropenic rabbits.