© 2020 Diabetes IndiaBackground and aims: The prevalence of thyroid disease in diabetic patients is significantly higher than the general population. This indicates a possible interaction between thyroid functions and insulin sensitivity. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between insulin resistance (IR), pancreatic β cell function, and thyroid function tests. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted with adults who applied to Eskişehir Osmangazi University Hospital for general control. Fasting insulin, glucose, TSH, fT3, and fT4 levels in the serum of 1340 adult (18–60 aged) patients without any chronic diseases were examined retrospectively. The fT3/fT4 ratio, Homeostatic Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR), and HOMA-β values were calculated. The correlation between HOMA-IR and HOMA-β values with thyroid function tests and differences between hormone levels of patients with and without IR were evaluated. Results: There was a positive correlation between HOMA-IR and TSH, negative with fT4. Also, a positive correlation between HOMA-β and fT3, negative correlation with fT4 were observed. In the IR group, fT3 levels were found significantly higher and fT4 levels were significantly lower. TSH levels were higher in the IR group but not statistically significant. The fT3/fT4 ratio was found significantly higher in the IR group and was correlated positively with both HOMA-IR and HOMA-β. Conclusion: Our results revealed that thyroid dysfunction prevalence is quite high in adults who have not yet been diagnosed with diabetes but have insulin resistance and the onset of pancreatic β cell dysfunction.