The process of head transplantation is reviewed according to Cartesian philosophy. Recent developments in head transplantation were followed with great interest in the media and society. The surgeon Sergio Canavero stated that he could perform head transplantation. His ethical approaches to the procedure are evaluated, and the methodological suitability of the procedure with regard to the scientific ethics is discussed. The perception of the head transplantation process in the media and society is described as a phenomenon, and the relationship between society and science is evaluated. Ethical duties and responsibilities are highlighted as an area of knowledge. According to the perspective of Cartesian philosophy, it is not yet possible to perform head transplantation under the conditions of today's medicine.