© 2022 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.The depletion of high-grade ore deposits, as well as the generation of large quantities of tailings by mining and metallurgical activities, necessitates an urgent search for not only more cost-effective, but also more eco-friendly methods of recovering minerals from low-grade deposits and secondary resources. Research in the bioflotation process appears to be an answer to this search, thanks to the contribution of the microbial world. This study constitutes the first systematic and the most comprehensive review on bioflotation. The bioflotation studies in the literature were examined in a certain chronological order and by classifying the reagents in terms of both their origin and their use in flotation. Aside from the benefits of bioreagents to the mining industry, the review attempted to reveal the issues that prevent the transition to industrial application. This review aims to raise awareness of future research opportunities for mining and biology researchers while also presenting current bioflotation studies.