Osteogenic Differentiation Capacity of Dental Pulp Stem Cells on 3D Printed Polyurethane/Boric Acid Scaffold

Çelebi-Saltik B., Babadag S., BALLIKAYA E., PAT S., ÖTEYAKA M. Ö.

Biological Trace Element Research, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s12011-023-03781-2
  • Journal Name: Biological Trace Element Research
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Aqualine, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, Chemical Abstracts Core, EMBASE, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, Pollution Abstracts, Veterinary Science Database
  • Keywords: 3D printing, Boric acid, Dental pulp stem cells, Osteogenic differentiation, Polyurethane
  • Eskisehir Osmangazi University Affiliated: Yes


Additive manufacturing is growing in the area of dentistry and orthopedics due to the potential for the fabrication of individual implants. In this study, fused deposition modeling which is the most popular method was used to produce 3D scaffolds having a grid pattern from the polyurethane (PU) filament. Then, this scaffold was coated with boric acid (BA) with the thermionic vacuum arc technique. The microstructure analysis showed the macro-pores having a dimension of ~ 0.16 mm2. The BA coating increased the roughness in adverse decreased the wettability. The presence of BA on the scaffold before and after cell culture was confirmed by FESEM-EDS and ATR-FTIR. The Cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation capacity of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) on uncoated and coated printed 3D PU scaffolds were also investigated. On the third day, cell viability was found to be higher (1.3-fold) in the groups containing BA. However, on the seventh day, the increase in cell proliferation in the PU+BA group was found to be less than in the other groups. According to Ca deposition analysis and Alizarin Red staining, PU+BA increased the calcium accumulation in the cells in both osteogenic induced and non-induced conditions at day 14. According to gene expression analysis, the Runx2 expression was not detected in PU+BA groups with and without differentiation medium (p ≤0.05). The expression of OCN was persistently increased up to 21-fold and 48-fold in cells on PU and PU+BA in osteogenic differentiation medium group after 14 days compared to control group (p ≤0.05). DSPP expression was observed only in PU+BA in osteogenic differentiation medium group. In line with the results that we have obtained, our 3D printed scaffolds have properties to trigger the differentiation of DPSCs cells in terms of osteogenicity.