Application of hidden Markov models to eye tracking data analysis of visual quality inspection operations

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Ulutaş B., Özkan N. F., Michalski R.

CENTRAL EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF OPERATIONS RESEARCH, vol.28, pp.761-777, 2020 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 28
  • Publication Date: 2020
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s10100-019-00628-x
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, IBZ Online, ABI/INFORM, Business Source Elite, Business Source Premier, EconLit, zbMATH, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Page Numbers: pp.761-777
  • Keywords: Human factors, Visual inspection, Human visual behavior, Hidden Markov models, Eye tracking technology, ATTENTION, STRATEGIES, MOVEMENTS, TASK
  • Eskisehir Osmangazi University Affiliated: Yes


Visual inspection is used in many areas due to the potential high costs of inspection error such as injury, fatality, loss of expensive equipment, scrapped items, rework, or failure to procure repeat business. This study presents an application of hidden Markov models (HMM) to fixations' sequences analysis during visual inspection of front panels in a home appliance facility. The eye tracking data are gathered when quality control operators perform their tasks. The results support the difference between expert and novice operator. Moreover, the article demonstrates four HMMs with two and three hidden states both for novice and experienced operators and provides analysis and discussion of the outcomes.