The role of Austrian physicians and Prof. Joseph Hyrtl (1810-1894) on modernization of Ottoman-Turkish medicine

Ortug G., Yucel F., Ay H.

ANNALS OF ANATOMY-ANATOMISCHER ANZEIGER, vol.185, no.6, pp.593-596, 2003 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 185 Issue: 6
  • Publication Date: 2003
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/s0940-9602(03)80134-6
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.593-596
  • Keywords: Ottoman-Turkish medicine, history of anatomy
  • Eskisehir Osmangazi University Affiliated: Yes


Medical schools have a long history in Ottoman-Turkish medical education. At Ottoman medical schools (medreses), education has been given to students regularly. But because of social dogma and oppression of religion on the science of human anatomy they could not get a chance to improve for centuries. Traditionally, Ottoman-Turkish medical education was shaped under the influence of Galenos (129-200) and Avicenna (980-1037). These influences continued until the beginning of the 19(th) century. In this period, Avicenna's most famous medical book "Kanun-i fit-tip" was a main anatomy textbook in medical education of the eleventh century. Modernization of educational systems in the Ottoman Empire started during the reign of Sultan Selim the 3(rd) (1789-1807) and modem anatomy in Ottoman-Turkish Medicine has flourished following the Austrian physicians. Today's Department of Anatomy at Istanbul Medical School of the Istanbul University is a continuation of Galatasaray Medical School which was the first medical school achieving the western educational level.