Hydroxyapatite-chitosan composites derived from sea cucumbers and shrimp shells ameliorate femoral bone defects in an albino rat model

Safira A., Rani C. A. M., Fikri F., Purnomo A., Khairani S., Chhetri S., ...More

VETERINARY WORLD, vol.16, no.5, pp.1084-1091, 2023 (ESCI) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 16 Issue: 5
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.14202/vetworld.2023.1084-1091
  • Journal Name: VETERINARY WORLD
  • Journal Indexes: Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, CAB Abstracts, EMBASE, Veterinary Science Database, Directory of Open Access Journals
  • Page Numbers: pp.1084-1091
  • Keywords: bone defect, chitosan, human and health, hydroxyapatite, sea cucumber, shrimp shell, TURNOVER MARKERS, PINP, POLYMERS, REPAIR, ROLES, CTX
  • Eskisehir Osmangazi University Affiliated: Yes


Background and Aim: A bone defect is defined as a critically sized autologous bone and a bone gap. Bone grafting is one of the most commonly used surgical methods to enhance bone regeneration in orthopedic procedures. A composite of collagen, hydroxyapatite (HA), and chitosan (Ch) is suitable as a bone matrix and stimulates ossification. This study aimed to evaluate the use of natural HA-Ch composites derived from sea cucumbers and shrimp shells and quantify the levels of cytokines, polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs), serum liver enzymes, calcium, phosphate, and procollagen type 1 N-terminal propeptide (PINP) in albino rats with femoral bone defects.Materials and Methods: A total of 48 albino rats with femoral bone defects were divided into 4 groups (n = 12 each): (C-) placebo, (C+) polyethylene glycol, (T1) HA, and (T2) HA-Ch groups. Each group was divided into two subgroups (n = 6 each), with euthanization on 7-and 42-day post-treatment, respectively. Procollagen Type 1 N-terminal propeptide and the cytokines interleukin (IL)-4, IL-6, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha were quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Flow cytometry was performed to evaluate PMNs. A clinical chemistry analyzer was used to measure the serum levels of liver enzymes, calcium, and phosphate.Results: There was a significant decrease in the level of IL-6 on 7 days and in the level of IL-10 on 42 days in the HA-Ch group. The level of PMNs also decreased significantly on 7 and 42 days in the HA-Ch group. Regarding serum liver enzymes, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels in the HA-Ch group increased significantly on 42 days. Calcium and phosphate levels increased significantly on 7 and 42 days in the HA and HA-Ch groups, and PINP levels increased significantly on 7 and 42 days in the HA-Ch group.Conclusion: The HA-Ch composite derived from sea cucumbers and shrimp shells ameliorated femoral bone defects in albino rats. The HA-Ch composite modulated the levels of IL-6, IL-10, PMNs, ALP, calcium, phosphate, and PINP on 7-and 42-day post-treatment.