Genetic variation and relationships among thirty four barley cultivars (H. vulgare L.) improved in Turkey were assessed by hordeins and RAPDs. Totally, 15 different hordein patterns were observed among 34 cultivars and twelve of these were cultivar specific. In comparison to hordeins, the RAPD variation observed among cultivars was higher and 80 % of these scorable bands were polymorphic. Genetic similarity (GS) calculated on hordein and RAPD data ranged from 0.52 to 1.00 and 0.57 to 1.00, respectively. Cluster analyses based on hordein data showed that most of the cultivars are closely related in genetical point of view. The dendrogram of hordeins were completely different from those of RAPDs and they couldn't precisely separate the barley cultivars. In addition to these, the level of polymorphism detected with hordein was lower than that of with RAPDs. Correspondence analysis by using two marker systems showed that RAPD data could distinguish almost all barley cultivars except Tokak 157/37 and Bülbül89, whereas hordein data were not able to perform to distinguish barley cultivars like RAPDs. Some polymorphic and repeatable RAPDs markers should be equipped with morphologic markers in order to identify candidate cultivars and registered cultivars before and after registration procedure.