In this study, the effects of various surface treatments on the friction and wear behavior of AISI 4140 steel have been evaluated. Sample surfaces of AISI 4140 steel were treated by quenching, carburizing, boronizing and plasma transferred arc (PTA) modification. The microstructural characteristics of surface treated steel samples were examined by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The mechanical properties of the samples including the surface roughness, microhardness, and abrasive and adhesive wear characteristics were also evaluated. Wear tests were applied by using a block-on-disc configuration under dry sliding conditions. The wear behavior and friction characteristics of the samples were determined as a function of sliding distance. Each sample group was compared with the other sample groups, and it was observed that the carburized samples demonstrated the lowest weight losses; however, PTA-treated samples demonstrated the lowest coefficient of friction in comparison to the other sample groups at the same sliding distance.