Grade estimation by a machine learning model using coordinate rotations


Applied Earth Science: Transactions of the Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, vol.130, pp.57-66, 2021 (ESCI) identifier identifier


© 2021 Institute of Materials, Minerals and Mining and The AusIMM.Machine learning (ML) models provide useful tools to generate spatial estimations of geological features, but they do not consider the spatial dependence among the observations and they primarily use coordinates as predictors. Thus, many ML models produce visible artifacts in the resulting estimates along the coordinate directions. To overcome this significant problem, this paper presents an ensemble super learner (ESL) model which uses the super learner (SL) model as the ML model. In the ESL model, numerous training sets are created from the original dataset by a coordinate rotation strategy and then the estimates obtained from the fitted SL models are ensembled to produce a final estimate. A dataset from a high-grade gold deposit demonstrates the approach and compares the results to kriging and the SL model. The results demonstrate that the ESL model manages artifacts in ML spatial estimation. It also provides better results than the kriging and SL model in terms of estimation accuracy.