PURPOSE: This study aims to evaluate the effect of applying different parameters of nonthermal argon plasma (NTAP) on the surface roughness and phase transformation of yttrium-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystalline (Y-TZP) ceramics. METHODS: A total of 60 zirconia samples were prepared and randomly divided into six groups according to their surface treatments (n = 10). Group 1: control group; Group 2: argon plasma with a flow rate of 5 lt/min for 4 min; Group 3: 8 lt/min for 4 min; Group 4: 8 lt/min for 2 min; Group 5: 5 l/min for 2 min; Group 6: air abrasion with Al2O3 particle. The surface roughness was measured with a profilometer, and surface topography was observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis was performed to investigate the phase transformation. RESULTS: The air abrasion group showed the highest surface roughness. The lowest relative monoclinic phase amount (Xm) was observed in the control group (0.4%), and the highest Xm value was observed in group 6 (7.8%). CONCLUSION: While the air abrasion group showed the highest average surface roughness, it also caused the highest phase transformation. With a flow rate of 8 lt/min for 2 min NTAP treatment increased the surface roughness without causing significant phase transformation.