We describe seven patients with chronic osteomyelitis which developed in 3 following operation and in 4 after trauma. The treatment consisted of removal of dead tissue and filling the resulting cavities with gentamicin-impregnated xenografts. No antibiotics were used postoperatively. Urine gentamicin levels were above 0.5 mu g/ml for 8 days. The patients were followed up for at least 3.5 years and neither clinical nor laboratory signs of infection were detected These results lead us the conclusion that gentamicin-impregnated xenografts may have a place in the treatment of chronic osteomyelitis.