All-pole and pole-zero models for the vocal tract are developed. First an impulse train, then the pressure signal measured from the glottis, is used as the input in the models. The models for eight Turkish vowels produced by one male subject are studied to determine the effects of the presumed impulse train and the pressure signal measured from the glottis on the estimation of the vocal tract shape. The motion of the tongue is also examined for a whole word. (C) 1998 Biomedical Engineering Society. [S0090-6963(98)01006-6].