Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is an endogenous inhibitor of endothelial-based nitric oxide synthase. Its level is increased by end stage renal disease. However, most studies showing an increase in ADMA in dialysis patients have focused on hemodialysis. Results with peritoneal dialysis patients have been more inconclusive. Recent studies suggest that ADMA may be a new cardiovascular risk factor. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between ADMA levels, residual renal function, and left ventricular hypertrophy in peritoneal dialysis patients. Serum ADMA measurements and echocardiographic evaluations were performed in 54 peritoneal dialysis patients and 26 healthy volunteers. Residual renal function was measured in peritoneal dialysis patients by urea clearance from a urine collection. Thirty-two of the 54 peritoneal dialysis patients had residual renal function. ADMA levels of the peritoneal dialysis group were found to be significantly higher than those of healthy individuals (p = 0.03). Within the peritoneal dialysis group, ADMA levels of patients with residual renal function were significantly lower than those without residual renal function (p = 0.01), though they were still higher than the ADMA levels of the control group (p=0.04). Serum levels of ADMA were positively correlated with left ventricular mass index (r = 0.29, p = 0.01) and negatively correlated with early mitral inflow velocity (Em) (r = -0.28, p = 0.01), Em/Late mitral inflow velocity (Am) (r = -0,32, p = 0.00), and isovolumetric relaxation time (r = -0.30, p = 0.01). In conclusion, increased ADMA levels seem to be associated with left ventricular hypertrophy in peritoneal dialysis patients, and residual renal function may lead to a reduction of serum ADMA levels.