We investigated the relationship between tympanosclerosis, known atherosclerotic risk factors, and the intima-media thickness of bilateral carotid arteries using ultrasonography. A total of 122 patients admitted to our clinic with chronic otitis media between 2005 and 2010 were included in the study. The study group consisted of 61 patients with tympanosclerosis; the control group comprised 61 patients without tympanosclerosis. Internal carotid artery intima-media thickness (CAIMT), total cholesterol, triglyceride, low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, C-reactive protein, and homocysteine levels were measured in all patients. Homocysteine, low-density lipoprotein, total cholesterol, and triglyceride levels in the study group were higher compared with those of the control group (p < 0.05). Right and left CAIMT was greater in the study group versus the control group (p <= 0.001). In conclusion, atherosclerosis and tympanosclerosis were associated with identical risk factors; in the tympanosclerosis group, CAIMT was increased significantly. Copyright (C) 2015, Kaohsiung Medical University. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC. All rights reserved.