Primary systemic (AL) amyloidosis involves vital organs from the early phase of illness, resulting in poor prognosis. Today, high-dose melphalan followed by autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation is an effective treatment for systemic AL amyloidosis. We report a patient with nephrotic syndrome due to systemic AL amyloidosis, who was successfully treated with autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. At follow-up 36 months from ASCT, the patient showed a significant improvement in the signs of peripheral neuropathy and reduction in proteinuria without further organ involvement. Due to poor prognosis with conventional therapy, autologous stem cell transplantation should be considered for treatment in patients with systemic AL amyloidosis, and favorable outcome is ensured with achievement of renal response after ASCT.