The aim of this study was to investigate histopathologically the effects of an antioxidant alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E: Vit-E) in the other kidney of streptozotocin-induced (STZ) diabetic nephrectomized rats. Diabetes mellitus is a major cause of vascular complication effecting heart, kidney, retina and peripheral nerves. Methods: Mate Wistar albino rats were made diabetic using a single intraperitoneal injection of 65 mg/kg STZ. Rats were divided into four groups. Nephrectomy (for one kidney) was applied for all groups. Group A (n:8): Control, group B (n:8): Diabetic control, Group C (n:8): Control+Vit-E, Group D (n:8): Diabetic+Vit-E. Vit-E was injected 40 mg/kg/every other day intraperitoneally for 2 weeks. Results: There was no change at the control group rats. Structural changes in STZ-induced rats included a glomerular basal membrane thickening, tubular vacuolisation and degeneration, interstitial inflammation. The histopathological changes in the diabetic control groups were more significant compared to the control+Vit-E and diabetic+Vit-E groups. Conclusion: These results obtained with the antioxidant Vit-E suggest that oxidative stress is involved in the development of diabetic nephropathy. Vit-E treatment may be protective in diabetic nephropathy of nephrectomized diabetic rats.