In the present study, we aimed to 1) demonstrate the presence of all 10 toll-like receptors (TLRs) in ovine trophoblasts, and 2) investigate the expression profiles of TLR1 - 10 mRNAs in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) in ewes during early pregnancy. For those purposes, ovine trophoblasts (n = 6) were collected from pregnant ewes on day 13. PBLs were collected from non-pregnant (n = 6) and pregnant ewes (n = 17) on days of mating (d) 0 and 18. TLR mRNAs in ovine trophoblasts were visualized by free-floating in situ hybridization (ISH). To assess the expression profiles of TLR1-10 in PBLs, total RNA was isolated and transcribed to cDNA. TLR1-10 mRNA levels were determined by real-time PCR in triplicate. The Relative Expression Software Tool (REST 2009) was used for statistical analysis. We detected mRNAs for TLR2, TLR4, TLR5, TLR6, TLR7, TLR8, and TLR10 but not for TLR1, TLR3, and TLR9 in trophoblasts. TLR2, TLR5, TLR6, TLR7, TLR8, and TLR10 mRNAs were expressed by all trophoblasts, whereas TLR4 mRNA and protein in trophoblasts were more limited. In PBLs, TLR expression did not differ between day 0 and day 18 in non-pregnant ewes; however, ewes in early pregnancy exhibited significantly upregulated expression of TLR2 (23-fold), TLR4 (3.1-fold), TLR6 (1.7-fold), and TLR8 (2.2-fold) on day 18 compared with day 0. In contrast, TLR10 was downregulated (2-fold) on day 18 by pregnancy. Similar results were also obtained for TLR2, TLR4, TLR6, TLR8 and TLR10 from the comparison between day 18 non pregnant and day 18 pregnant groups. According to these results, the presence of TLRs in early ovine trophoblasts suggests that these cells play an immunological role at the maternal fetal interface. The results also suggest that tight regulation of some components of TLRs in PBLs due to embryo- and/or pregnancy related factors is necessary for successful establishment of early pregnancy in ewes. (C) 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.