Interleukin-1 superfamily member, interleukin-33, in periodontal diseases.

Beklen A., Memet G. T.

Biotechnic & histochemistry : official publication of the Biological Stain Commission, vol.89, no.3, pp.209-14, 2014 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier


Interleukin (IL)-33 is a nuclear protein that is released from damaged cells and acts as an alarmin. We investigated the expression of IL-33 in human gingival fibroblasts after stimulation by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). Human periodontal tissue samples were collected and fixed in phosphate-buffered 4% formalin in saline and processed to paraffin blocks. TNF-alpha was immuno-stained in samples of ten periodontitis patients and ten controls. Human gingival fibroblasts were isolated using an explant culture technique. The influence of TNF-alpha on IL-33 in gingival fibroblasts was analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The number of TNF-alpha positive cells was significantly greater in periodontitis samples than in controls. TNF-alpha was located mainly in macrophage-and fibroblast-like cells, vascular endothelial cells and epithelial cells. Analysis of IL-33 expression in cell culture lysates showed that TNF-alpha induced IL-33 in cultured gingival fibroblasts. Periodontitis samples are characterized by Th2 cell dominance, which has been linked to anti-inflammatory responses and periodontal repair. TNF-alpha-induced IL-33 may link inflammation directly to the IL-33-dependent stimulation of Th2 cytokine producing cells and participate in the induction of lymphocytes, which results in protective, anti-inflammatory and reparative responses.