Background aims. Studies performed using human and animal models have indicated the immunoregulatory capability of mesenchymal stromal cells in several lineages. We investigated whether human dental pulp-derived stem cells (hDP-SC) have regulatory effects on phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-activated CD3(+) T cells. We aimed to define the regulatory mechanisms associated with hDP-SC that occur in mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) and transwell systems with PHA-CD3(+) T cells and hDP-SC at a ratio of 1:1. Methods. Proliferation, apoptosis and pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokines of PHA-CD3(+) T cells, the expression of Regulatory T cells (Treg) markers and some regulatory factors related to hDP-SC, were studied in Both transwell and MLR are co-cultures systems. Results. Anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects of hDP-SC were determined in co-culture systems. Elevated expression levels of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)-beta 1, intracellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1)-1, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta 1, vascular adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) by hDP-SC were detected in the co-culture systems. We observed decreased expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines [interferon (IFN)-gamma, IL-2, IL-6 receptor (R), IL-12, Interleukin-17A (IL-17A), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha] and increased expression levels of anti-inflammatory cytokine [inducible protein (IP)-10] from PHA-CD3(+) T cells in the transwell system. Expression of Treg (CD4(+) CD25(+) Foxp3(+)) markers was significantly induced by hDP-SC in both co-culture systems. We observed apoptosis of PHA-CD3(+) T cells with 24 h using time-lapse camera photographs and active caspase labeling; it is likely that paracrine soluble factors and molecular signals secreted by hDP-SC led this apoptosis. Conclusions. We suggest that hDP-SC have potent immunoregulatory functions because of their soluble factors and cytokines via paracrine mechanisms associated with PHA-CD3(+) T cells, which could contribute to clinical therapies.